Hidden history of computer hacking

Mark Ward – In 1998, Chris Wysopal and friends discovered a way to shut down the internet.
With just 30 minutes of work they believed they could do enough damage to stop the world wide network operating for a couple of days.
They told people about what they found but not in a chat channel or discussion forum. They did it in a much more public place. In the US Senate, in fact. In front of its Committee on Governmental Affairs. At the time Mr Wysopal and his friends were part of a Boston-based hacker collective called L0pht Heavy Industries. They testified using their hacker handles. Alongside Mr Wysopal (aka Weld Pond) were Mudge, Space Rogue, Brian Oblivion, Kingpin, Tan and Stefan Von Neumann.
It was a pivotal, if surreal, moment. Pivotal because the hacking group, which the committee’s chairman described as “rock stars of the computer world”, was giving advice rather than being accused of causing trouble.
L0pht had been founded with a view to helping change that perspective, said Mr Wysopal. “The fact that people were getting found and detected and arrested meant it was real and we did not want to go down that path,” he told the BBC.
The L0pht’s testimony in the Senate generated headlines around the world. Hackers were no longer considered just unruly kids. They were on their way to becoming the security gurus and guardians they are regarded as today.
Bigger machines
It took about 15 years for that shift in perspective to take hold and for the image of hackers as teenage troublemakers to fade.
Mark Abene was one of those teenage hackers. He got started in the early 80s before the net was widespread, before Google was founded and about the time Mark Zuckerberg was born. The connection software he used on his 8-bit TRS 80 home computer came on a cassette tape and he had to dial numbers each time he wanted to make a connection.
When he did connect he frequented places known as Bulletin Board Systems (aka BBS’) which at that time were all text-based.
“Initially I was just looking for people with the same computer I had to trade software,” he said. “Then I found out about mini-computers and mainframes and got interested in accessing those.”
He discovered them because many of the BBS’ he visited were repositories of text files that detailed how to dial them up, how to interact with them and how to program them. The files were compiled by others who frequented the boards and were happy to share them with any other visitor.
His interest in security grew as an unintended consequence of the time he spent exploring the US phone network. “That kind of exploration was kind of like a game, it was a really big adventure,” he said. “I had no idea what I was going to find at the end of the carrier and that’s what made it more interesting. “The interest in security was tangential,” he added.
“We just wanted to maintain access or improve it and to do that we had to understand the security mechanisms,” said Mr Abene. “Not because we thought we would get caught and arrested and get put in jail, but because we didn’t want to get noticed. That would have meant they would change the password and we’d lose access and then it would be no fun anymore.”
Mr Abene and his friends were not alone in exploring. The hacker sub-culture was growing with the help of 2600 – a magazine which published useful information and, just as importantly, helped organise meetings for like-minded network explorers all around the US.
“It was about connecting people to each other,” said Eric Corley, founding editor of 2600, “about finding people that share your interests.”
“Getting to know people who know your views and understand them, and helping you realise you are not alone is a good thing,” he said.
The ethics of what it meant to be a hacker were also solidified in those days of innocent discovery. And it was innocent not just because in the early 1980s there were no laws in the US or other nations which prohibited unauthorised access to telephone and computer networks.
There was no need, said Mr Abene, as most of the hackers were curious rather than destructive.
“It was never about attacks and never about monetary gain,” he said. “The underlying principle was to understand the system and make some kind of logic out of the chaos.”
The innocence began to fade in the mid-to-late 80s when laws were passed to tackle those trespassing on computer and phone networks.
Arrests followed and many of those hacking pioneers, including Mr Abene, faced charges for trespassing on the networks where they had previously had free rein.
“We could do anything and go into anywhere,” he said. “It was liberating and there will never be a time like that again.”
The over-arching ethic of that time has been preserved, said Mr Corley, and has led to a time when those teenagers are now pillars of the establishment. They are helping to keep safe what they once ran rings around. The skills they learned in those dawning days are now in wide demand.
“They have become more mature and responsible because they have to feed their families but they held on to their values and that’s an admirable thing,” he said. “They profit from their skills but that’s not why they started out, that came from their passion for these things.”–BBC

Article source: http://nation.com.pk/international/28-Oct-2014/hidden-history-of-computer-hacking

Exposing the hidden history of computer hacking

Today many rely on computer hackers to find bugs before the bad guys get hold of them

In 1998, Chris Wysopal and friends discovered a way to shut down the internet.

With just 30 minutes of work they believed they could do enough damage to stop the world wide network operating for a couple of days.

They told people about what they found but not in a chat channel or discussion forum. They did it in a much more public place. In the US Senate, in fact. In front of its Committee on Governmental Affairs.

At the time Mr Wysopal and his friends were part of a Boston-based hacker collective called L0pht Heavy Industries. They testified using their hacker handles. Alongside Mr Wysopal (aka Weld Pond) were Mudge, Space Rogue, Brian Oblivion, Kingpin, Tan and Stefan Von Neumann.

It was a pivotal, if surreal, moment. Pivotal because the hacking group, which the committee’s chairman described as “rock stars of the computer world”, was giving advice rather than being accused of causing trouble.

L0pht had been founded with a view to helping change that perspective, said Mr Wysopal.

“The fact that people were getting found and detected and arrested meant it was real and we did not want to go down that path,” he told the BBC.

The L0pht’s testimony in the Senate generated headlines around the world. Hackers were no longer considered just unruly kids. They were on their way to becoming the security gurus and guardians they are regarded as today.

Bigger machines

It took about 15 years for that shift in perspective to take hold and for the image of hackers as teenage troublemakers to fade.

Mark Abene was one of those teenage hackers. He got started in the early 80s before the net was widespread, before Google was founded and about the time Mark Zuckerberg was born. The connection software he used on his 8-bit TRS 80 home computer came on a cassette tape and he had to dial numbers each time he wanted to make a connection.

When he did connect he frequented places known as Bulletin Board Systems (aka BBS’) which at that time were all text-based.

“Initially I was just looking for people with the same computer I had to trade software,” he said. “Then I found out about mini-computers and mainframes and got interested in accessing those.”

He discovered them because many of the BBS’ he visited were repositories of text files that detailed how to dial them up, how to interact with them and how to program them. The files were compiled by others who frequented the boards and were happy to share them with any other visitor.

His interest in security grew as an unintended consequence of the time he spent exploring the US phone network.

Early hackers had to know how to get free calls or face paying a huge phone bill

“That kind of exploration was kind of like a game, it was a really big adventure,” he said. “I had no idea what I was going to find at the end of the carrier and that’s what made it more interesting.

“The interest in security was tangential,” he added.

“We just wanted to maintain access or improve it and to do that we had to understand the security mechanisms,” said Mr Abene. “Not because we thought we would get caught and arrested and get put in jail, but because we didn’t want to get noticed. That would have meant they would change the password and we’d lose access and then it would be no fun anymore.”

Mr Abene and his friends were not alone in exploring. The hacker sub-culture was growing with the help of 2600 – a magazine which published useful information and, just as importantly, helped organise meetings for like-minded network explorers all around the US.

“It was about connecting people to each other,” said Eric Corley, founding editor of 2600, “about finding people that share your interests.”

“Getting to know people who know your views and understand them, and helping you realise you are not alone is a good thing,” he said.

The ethics of what it meant to be a hacker were also solidified in those days of innocent discovery. And it was innocent not just because in the early 1980s there were no laws in the US or other nations which prohibited unauthorised access to telephone and computer networks.

Continue reading the main story

Start Quote

Yes, I am a criminal – my crime is that of curiosity”

End Quote
The Mentor
The Conscience of a Hacker

There was no need, said Mr Abene, as most of the hackers were curious rather than destructive.

“It was never about attacks and never about monetary gain,” he said. “The underlying principle was to understand the system and make some kind of logic out of the chaos.”

The innocence began to fade in the mid-to-late 80s when laws were passed to tackle those trespassing on computer and phone networks.

Arrests followed and many of those hacking pioneers, including Mr Abene, faced charges for trespassing on the networks where they had previously had free rein.

“We could do anything and go into anywhere,” he said. “It was liberating and there will never be a time like that again.”

The over-arching ethic of that time has been preserved, said Mr Corley, and has led to a time when those teenagers are now pillars of the establishment. They are helping to keep safe what they once ran rings around. The skills they learned in those dawning days are now in wide demand.

“They have become more mature and responsible because they have to feed their families but they held on to their values and that’s an admirable thing,” he said. “They profit from their skills but that’s not why they started out, that came from their passion for these things.”

Article source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-28214646

Rare 1976 Apple 1 set to fetch £309000 at Bonhams’ History of Science auction

  • History of Science sale will take place at Bonhams, New York on Wednesday 
  • It features books, scientific and technological gadgets, photos, and prints ranging from the 16th to 20th centuries
  • This includes a letter by Charles Darwin detailing reproduction of barnacles
  • It also features a Helmholtz Sound Synthesizer and an Ada Lovelace sketch
  • The most expensive item is an Apple 1 computer in ‘excellent condition’ set to fetch between $300,000 and $500,000 (£185,800 and £309,500) 

Victoria Woollaston for MailOnline

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Back in 1976, the Apple 1 computer cost £420 ($666) – but almost 40 years on, a rare working model is expected to fetch up to $500,000 (£309,500) at auction.

It is among a collection of items being sold in the inaugural History of Science sale at Bonhams New York on Wednesday.

Alongside the iconic computer is a letter from Charles Darwin about the reproduction of barnacles, a sketch drawn by mathematician Ada Lovelace and the world’s first electric keyboard; the Helmholtz Sound Synthesizer from 1905.

The Apple 1, (pictured) valued at between $300,000 and 500,000 (£185,800 and $309,500), is the first pre-assembled personal computer ever sold. It will headline the auction’s technology section at an auction at Bonhams New York on Wednesday. It has been valued so high because it is in ‘excellent condition’

The auction opens with an selection of globes, ranging from miniature and pocket globes, to desktop and educational globes, to planetary models.

Notable lots include Richard Cushee’s New Pocket Globe, produced in 1731, estimated to fetch between $8,000 and $12,000, (£5,000 and £7,400).

There is also a terrestrial globe and armillary sphere by the French globe maker Félix Delamarche in 1834, valued at between $10,000 and $15,000 (£6,100 and £9,200).

Meanwhile, the Apple 1, valued at between $300,000 and 500,000 (£185,800 and $309,500), is the first pre-assembled personal computer ever sold. 

There is also an extensive archive belonging to astronomer and telescope designer George Willis Ritchey, expected to sell for between $450,000 and $550,000 (£278,500 and £340,250). The collection contains hundreds of vintage photographs (pictured), telescopes and glass slides

The Mathematics and Physics section includes a Helmholtz Sound Synthesizer (pictured), estimated at $20,000 and $30,000 (£12,380 and £18,500). An example of the first electric keyboard, the item was crafted by Max Kohl after the design by physicist Hermann von Hemholtz

It will headline the auction’s technology section and has been valued so high because it is in ‘excellent condition.’

Only five operating units of the computer have come up for public sale in the past four years, and all have had damage, repairs or modifications from their original shipping condition.

This example was booted up in August of 2014 by Apple 1 expert Corey Cohen.

Other important items is a first edition of the paper on the history of digital computing, Ada Lovelace’s ‘Sketch of the Analytical Engine invented by Charles Babbage,’ estimated to be worth $18,000 to $25,000 (£11,100 and £15,500), and a silk portrait of J.M. Jacquard, valued at between $20,000 and $30,000 (£12,380 and £18,500).

THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE SALE: NOTABLE LOTS 

This is another photo, showing the moon, taken from the George Willis Ritchey archive

Apple 1: Valued at between $300,000 and 500,000 (£185,800 and $309,500), it is the first pre-assembled personal computer ever sold.

It will headline the auction’s technology section and has been valued so high because it is in ‘excellent condition.’

Only five operating units of the computer have come up for public sale in the past four years, and all have had damage, repairs or modifications from their original shipping condition. 

Helmholtz Sound Synthesizer: Estimated at $20,000 and $30,000 (£12,380 and £18,500), it is an example of the first electric keyboard. 

The item was crafted by Max Kohl in 1905, based on the design by physicist Hermann von Hemholtz.

The synthesizer was used to combine timbres of 10 harmonics to form various vowel sounds. 

The system is driven by an intermittent current provided by a large horizontal master tuning fork on numbered wood base, and was operated by pressing on the various keys which sent the current to the corresponding electrically driven tuning forks. 

First edition of William Withering’s Account of the Foxglove: Published in 1785, the item, valued at between $10,000 and $20,000 (£6,100 and £12,380) presents his discovery of the efficacy of digitalis in the treatment of heart disease.

An original viewing window (pictured) used in the production of plutonium by the WWII Manhattan project bomb program is expected to fetch between $150,000 and $250,000 (£93,000 and £150,000). Researchers would have stood behind the window while watching atomic-bomb experiments

Dr Nathaniel Wallich’s Plantae Asiaticae Rariores: Valued at $35,000 to $55,000 (£21,660 to £34,000), the plate was published between 1830 and 1832. 

Dr Wallich is known for his work on the botany of India and was the first European to study the plants of Nepal, and of the countries south of the Himalayas.

He was commissioned by the East India Company to produce illustrated work, and the copy up for auction was taken from the collection of the Director of the East India Company.

Astronomer and telescope designer George Willis Ritchey archive: Expected to sell for between $450,000 and $550,000 (£278,500 and £340,250), the collection contains hundreds of vintage photographs, telescopes, glass slides, a 27-inch (69cm) cellular mirror, and a 20-inch (50cm) optical flat, manuscripts, blueprints and books.

Manhattan Project Viewing Window: An original viewing window used in the production of plutonium by the WWII Manhattan project bomb program. 

The program developed the Atomic Bomb Little Boy, the Trinity Test, and the first ever Hydrogen Bomb, as well as the Fat Man, dropped on Nagasaki, Japan on 9 August, 1945.

It is expected to fetch between $150,000 and $250,000 (£93,000 and £150,000). 

Researchers would have stood behind the window while watching the atomic-bomb experiments, to protect them from radiation.  

J.M Jacquard was executed in 1839 and the portrait was created using one of his own programmable Jacquard looms, the invention of which is regarded as the birth of the computer age.

There is also a letter by Charles Darwin (pictured) discussing reproduction in barnacles, valued between $20,000 and $30,000 (£12,380 and £18,500)

Bonhams’ sale also contains a section on astronomy, featuring books and manuscripts, alongside telescopes, and both planetary and deep-space photography.

In particular, there is an extensive archive belonging to astronomer and telescope designer George Willis Ritchey, expected to sell for between $450,000 and $550,000 (£278,500 and £340,250).

The collection contains hundreds of vintage photographs, telescopes, glass slides, a 27-inch (69cm) cellular mirror, and a 20-inch (50cm) optical flat, manuscripts, blueprints and books.

Elsewhere, the Natural History section includes large format colour plate books such as Dr Nathaniel Wallich’s Plantae Asiaticae Rariores, valued at $35,000 to $55,000 (£21,660 to £34,000).

It was published between 1830 and 1832.

Dr Wallich is known for his work on the botany of India and was the first European to study the plants of Nepal, and of the countries south of the Himalayas.

He was commissioned by the East India Company to produce illustrated work, and the copy up for auction was taken from the collection of the Director of the East India Company.

There is also a letter penned by Charles Darwin discussing reproduction in barnacles, valued between $20,000 and $30,000 (£12,380 and £18,500).

The largest section of the sale focuses on Medicine and Physiology, and includes selections in anatomy, obstetrics, teratology, and surgery, as well Nobel Prize winning works in genetics.

THE ICONIC APPLE 1 

Apple founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak created the personal computer in 1976 and presented it at a Palo Alto computer club, but there were few takers at the time.

Paul Terrell, owner of a retail chain called Byte Shop, placed an order for 50 of the machines and sold them for $666.66 (£420) retail – once Mr Wozniak and Mr Jobs agreed to assemble the circuit boards rather than offer them as kits.

The pair then produced 150 more and sold them to friends and other vendors.

Fewer than 50 original Apple 1s are believed to have survived, with only six known to be in working condition.

The Apple 1 did not have a keyboard or monitor, meaning users had to supply their own.

The Apple 1 did not have a keyboard or monitor, meaning users had to supply their own. Launched in July 1976, it was priced at $666.66 (£420) – reportedly because Apple founder Steve Wozniak liked repeating digits. It is not known how many were sold but by April 1977 the price had dropped to $475 (£300)

It also had a tiny 8K memory – minuscule by today’s standards.

Launched in July 1976, it was priced at $666.66 (£420) – reportedly because Mr Wozniak liked repeating digits.

Jobs sent them direct to buyers from the garage of his parents’ house.

It is not known how many were sold but by April 1977 the price had dropped to $475 (£300).

The computer helped kick-start a technological revolution that brought affordable computers out of science labs and into people’s homes.

The Apple II was introduced in April 1977 with an integrated keyboard, sound, a plastic case, and eight internal expansion slots.

By the time it was discontinued in October 1977, around 200 Apple 1s had been produced.

It is thought that only 30 to 50 of the computers still exist today and there is rarely an opportunity to buy one. 

Of special interest is a first edition of William Withering’s Account of the Foxglove, published in 1785.

The item, valued at between $10,000 and $20,000 (£6,100 and £12,380) presents his discovery of the efficacy of digitalis in the treatment of heart disease.

Of particular note to scholars is an archive of manuscripts and original artwork by the French physiologist Antoine-Pierre-Ernest Bazin on the anatomy of the lungs and respiratory system, set to fetch between $10,000 and $15,000 (£6,100 and £9,200).

The Natural History section includes large format colour plate books such as Dr Nathaniel Wallich’s Plantae Asiaticae Rariores, valued at $35,000 to $55,000 (£21,660 to £34,000) (pictured left). There is also a silk portrait of J.M. Jacquard (right) valued at between $20,000 and $30,000 (£12,380 and £18,500) up for sale

The auction also features a selection of globes, ranging from miniature and pocket globes, to desktop and educational globes. Notable lots include a terrestrial globe and armillary sphere (pictured) by the French globe maker Félix Delamarche in 1834, valued at $10,000 and $15,000 (£6,100 and £9,200)

The Mathematics and Physics section includes a Helmholtz Sound Synthesizer, estimated at $20,000 and $30,000 (£12,380 and £18,500).

An example of the first electric keyboard, the item was crafted by Max Kohl after the design by physicist Hermann von Hemholtz.

‘Specimens of these are extremely rare, with only one similar but smaller apparatus located in a US institution that we know of.

‘We have not seen another as large or finely made as this one,’ said Cassandra Hatton, senior specialist who is in charge of this sale. 

 

 

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Article source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2801498/rare-apple-1-set-fetch-309-000-auction-working-1976-model-items-selling-bonhams-history-science-sale.html

The Henry Ford gets a piece of computing history with "Apple-1"

The Henry Ford museum in Dearborn has acquired one of the world’s foremost digital artifacts: an Apple-1 computer.

As the first pre-assembled personal computer ever sold, the Apple-1 marked a key moment at the start of the digital age.

The Henry Ford got one of 50 hand-built in 1976 by Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak–in fellow co-founder Steve Jobs’s family garage.

Executive Vice President Christian Overland said the Henry Ford’s collection is all about new ideas and innovations–and the Apple-1 fits in perfectly.

“He [Wozniak] figured out how to put together a personal computer using fewer circuits than people could ever imagine, a real creative way of engineering,” Overland said. “And it’s the beginning of the era that defines the world as we know it today.”

Overland said the Henry Ford had already interviewed Wozniak as part of an oral history project, and the Apple-1 will now supplement that “wonderful process-of-innovation story.”

The museum acquired the computer for $905,000 at a Bonhams History of Science auction in New York City—a record price for a vintage computer.

But Overland called it “a great price” for a piece that heralded the “beginning of personal computing.”

“The Apple-1 is important for our collection because it’s one of those firsts, those transformative moments in history,” he said.

Article source: http://michiganradio.org/post/henry-ford-gets-piece-computing-history-apple-1

A piece of Apple history sells for $900000

(Reuters) – One of the few remaining examples of Apple Inc’s first pre-assembled computer, Apple-1, sold for $905,000 at an auction in New York on Wednesday, far outstripping expectations.

The relic, which sparked a revolution in home computing, is thought to be one of the first batch of 50 Apple-1 machines assembled by Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak in Steve Job’s family garage in Los Altos, California in the summer of 1976.

Auction house Bonhams had said it expected to sell the machine, which was working as of September, for between $300,000 and $500,000.

The buyer was The Henry Ford organization, which plans to display the computer in its museum in Dearborn, Michigan.

“The Apple-1 was not only innovative, but it is a key artifact in the foundation of the digital revolution,” Henry Ford President Patricia Mooradian said in a statement.

There were few buyers for the first Apples until Paul Terrell, owner of electronics retailer Byte Shop, placed an order for 50 and sold them for $666.66 each.

After that initial success, Jobs and Wozniak produced another 150 and sold them to friends and other vendors.

Previously, a working Apple-I was sold by Sotheby’s auction house in 2012 for $374,500.

Fewer than 50 original Apple-1s are believed to survive


AAPL



.

Article source: http://fortune.com/2014/10/22/a-piece-of-apple-history-sells-for-900000/

‘Steve Jobs had a very deep understanding of history.’ Here’s why all …

It’s good to focus on the future. But many of this generation’s greatest innovators have been as obsessed with the past as with the future, argues Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs’ biographer and author of a new history of the great computer innovators over the last few hundred years.

“Steve Jobs had a very deep understanding of history,” Isaacson told me. “He loved the history of Silicon Valley.”

Isaacson says that Jobs used to regularly visit the legendary business duo, Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard, and grill them on the history of the region. Indeed, Isaacson told me that Jobs said, “Life is a like a river; and you take things out of that river that other people before you have put in and then you try to put something back in the river that’s your contribution.”

Jobs was a fierce supporter of the humanities. When he introduced the new iPad back in 2011, he said, “It is in Apple’s DNA that technology alone is not enough — it’s technology married with liberal arts, married with the humanities, that yields us the results that make our heart sing.”

It’s especially timely to note that Grace Hopper, the namesake of last week’s Google conference on women in computing and a pioneer in early 20th century programming, was also a history buff. Isaacson tells me that she and her partner, Howard Aiken, studied the fragments of the original computer from Charles Babbage when they were designing their own contributions; Babbage’s invention was acknowledged in Aiken and Hopper’s instructional manual for the famous Mark I computer, one of the first modern computing devices.

“I think great innovators tend to know the data points that got us to where we are.”

Fortunately, for many in the Bay Area, there’s a Computer History museum in the very city Google calls home. Perhaps it wouldn’t hurt for startups and tech companies to take a little company field trip to learn about their forerunners.

Article source: http://venturebeat.com/2014/10/22/steve-jobs-had-a-very-deep-understanding-of-history-heres-why-all-engineers-should-too/

The Henry Ford Acquires 1976 Apple-1 Computer at Bonhams History of …

Computer one of first 50 originally produced by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs


Dearborn, Mich. (PRWEB) October 22, 2014

The Henry Ford confirmed today the acquisition of a 1976 Apple-1 computer, one of the first 50 originally produced and still in operational condition. The Apple-1 was purchased at Bonhams History of Science auction in New York City on October 22 for $905,000.

“When acquiring artifacts for The Henry Ford’s Archive of American Innovation, we look at how the items will expand our ability to tell the important stories of American culture and its greatest innovators,” said Patricia Mooradian, president of The Henry Ford. “Similar to what Henry Ford did with the Model T, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs put technology directly in the hands of the people with the creation of the Apple-1, completely altering the way we work and live. The Apple-1 was not only innovative, but it is a key artifact in the foundation of the digital revolution.”

The Apple-1 is the first pre-assembled personal computer ever sold and first computer with a keyboard and video display, heralding the beginning of the personal computer age. Its origins began in 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, Calif., where member Steve Wozniak demonstrated his breakthrough design. Coupled with his high school friend Steve Jobs’ marketing prowess, Wozniak and Jobs went on to obtain an order from Byte Shop owner, Paul Terrell for 50 assembled boards. These were assembled over the course of 30 days inside the Jobs’ family home – the humble, almost cottage industry-like beginnings of what would become one of the world’s most profitable companies.

“The opportunity to acquire an Apple-1 is a rare one, given their low production numbers,” said Kristen Gallerneaux, Curator of Communication Information Technology at The Henry Ford. “The likelihood that a unit as complete as this will come up for auction is slender. The Henry Ford would have been remiss in holding off much longer in acquiring one for our collection.”

Only 64 of the originally produced 200 Apple-1 computers are known to exist – with 15 of this group known to be operational. In addition to the central Apple-1 motherboard, the acquisition also includes a hand-built keyboard interface, power supply, facsimile copies of the owner’s manual and schematics, Sanyo monitor and Apple-1 Cassette Interface. It also includes a group of printed materials generated by the Cincinnati AppleSiders enthusiast group, founded by the original owner of this Apple-1, John Barkley Anderson. Poke-Apple newsletters, and two VHS tapes documenting Wozniak’s 1980 speech at an “Apple-Vention” organized by the AppleSiders group are also included.

The Henry Ford is currently working with Bonhams regarding bringing the Apple-1 Computer to its new home inside Henry Ford Museum. Details on when the computer will be put on permanent display will be released at a later time.

About The Henry Ford

The Henry Ford in Dearborn, Michigan is an internationally-recognized cultural destination that brings the past forward by immersing visitors in the stories of ingenuity, resourcefulness and innovation that helped shape America. A national historic landmark with an unparalleled collection of artifacts from 300 years of American history, The Henry Ford is a force for sparking curiosity and inspiring tomorrow’s innovators. More than 1.6 million visitors annually experience its five attractions: Henry Ford Museum, Greenfield Village, The Ford Rouge Factory Tour, The Benson Ford Research Center and The Henry Ford IMAX Theatre. A continually expanding array of content available online provides anytime, anywhere access. The Henry Ford is also home to Henry Ford Academy, a public charter high school which educates 485 students a year on the institution’s campus. For more information please visit our website thehenryford.org.

# # #

For the original version on PRWeb visit: http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/10/prweb12270891.htm

Article source: http://www.ourmidland.com/prweb/the-henry-ford-acquires-apple--computer-at-bonhams-history/article_b52c9a16-c31a-5366-9fa9-3c8609c1015d.html

The First Apple Computer Stars In Tomorrow’s Amazing History Of Science Auction

An original Apple 1 computer built by Steve Wozniak in the Jobs family garage is the star attraction in an incredible collection of scientific collectibles being auctioned off in New York tomorrow.

Bonhams History of Science auction – its first – is a history buff’s ultimate shopping trip. Along with the Apple 1, of which just 200 were made, articles belonging to luminaries the likes of Charles Darwin and Ada Lovelace, medical and biological curiosities, artwork and original inventions are on the block.

The auction starts at Bonhams New York, 1pm EDT (4am AEDT). Here’s a selection of the most wanted; you can view the whole collection at Bonhams’ website.

Apple 1 Motherboard

Built by Steve Wozniak in the Jobs family garage, only five of these have been sold in the past four years. Unlike those four, this one looks like it’s in original shipping condition. Just 200 were made and they became the first pre-assembled personal computers on the market. This one is in working order – Bonhams have this video of it in action – and comes with tape decks, keyboard and monitor.
Link: Lot 286 – APPLE 1 COMPUTER.
Expected price: AU$340,000 – 570,000

Ada Lovelace sketch

If you’re hardcore about vintage computers, this lot puts the Apple 1 in the shade – and for a fraction of the price. It’s a “Sketch of the Analytical Engine invented by Charles Babbage” by none other than the Countess of Lovelace, Lord Byron’s only child, maths prodigy and considered by many to be history’s first computer programmer. Babbage demonstrated his Analytical Engine concept in Turin in 1841 and Italian military engineer L.F. Menabrea took notes. Lovelace not only translated the notes to English, but expanded on them in a way that proved to the world it was a genuinely programmable computer.
Link: Lot 272 – [LOVELACE, AUGUSTA ADA BYRON, COUNTESS OF, translator.] MENABREA, LUIGI FEDERICO.
Expected price: AU$20,000 – 28,000

Helmholtz Sound Synthesizer

Mix some phat 19th Century beats with this wood and brass sound synthesizer built by Max Kohl after the design by Hemholtz. It’s the first electric keyboard, designed to “identify the various frequencies of the pure sine wave components of complex sounds containing multiple tones”. Bonhams says it knows of only one other example, none of this size or quality, which combines “timbres of 10 harmonics to form various vowel sounds”.
Link: Lot 245 – HELMHOLTZ, HERMANN VON. 1821-1894. Chemnitz: Max Kohl, c.1905.
Expected price: AU$23,000 – 34,000

Charles Darwin signed letter about barnacles

Darwin’s study of barnacles in particular led him to classify a group of organisms according to the principle of ‘common descent,’ the idea that related animals and plants all descend from a common ancestor. In this letter, Darwins tells a colleague that he can’t wait to hear details from a man who claims he has watched a group of barnacles have sex.
Link: Lot 80 – DARWIN, CHARLES. 1809-1882.
Expected price: AU$23,000 – 34,000

Manhattan Project Viewing Window

A viewing window from the secret WWII Manhattan project bomb program, in which work by Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi led to the development of the first hydrogen bomb and the Fat Man atomic bomb which destroyed Nagasaki. It’s on a wooden cart, because despite the fact it’s 54″ – about the size of large family TV – it weighs 680kg. It emits a yellow glow due to its high percentage of protective lead oxide. But it’s definitely not radioactive.
Link: Lot 262W.
Expected price: AU$170,000 – 280,000

Letters from Samuel Morse

Morse first attempted to build his famous overland telegraph underground. When it fizzled out, he was persuaded to use a system of poles proposed by the British engineer Charles Wheatstone. This group of documents relate to Morse’s construction of the first electromagnetic telegraph line, in which he orders 400 chestnut posts at a price of 98 cents apiece. Six weeks later, construction would begin and end on May 24, 1844, with Morse telegraphing his famous message: “What hath God wrought!”
List: Lot 225 MORSE. TELEGRAPH DOCUMENTS.
Expected price: AU$11,000 – 17,000

Magic Lantern

An early form of the motion picture projector, widely used by traveling showmen in the 17th Century known as “Savoyards” who gave lantern shows projected onto white backdrops. Also popular parts of magic acts. This one comes in a beautiful mahogany box, with 10 hand-colored glass slides depicting “a variety of scenes, including the great Pyramids of Egypt, a scholar in his study, a jungle scene with dragons and snakes, and a tropical scene”.
List: Lot 233 MAGIC LANTERN. Pettibone New Improved Sciopticon. Cincinatti, Ohio
Expected price: AU$2,300 – 3,400

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Article source: http://www.businessinsider.com.au/the-first-apple-computer-stars-in-tomorrows-amazing-history-of-science-auction-2014-10

Auction offers fascinating glimpse into the history of science and technology

Apple-1 Computer. (Image courtesy of Bonhams)

From one of the first Apple computers to a Charles Darwin letter discussing Barnacle sex, a major auction of technological and scientific artifacts this week will give a fascinating glimpse into the great minds that helped shape our world.

Spanning centuries, the 288 items in the sale are estimated to raise around $2 million when they go under the hammer at auction house Bonhams on Oct. 22.

One of the key items in the New York auction is one of the first Apple-1 computers, which still works, a product which helped lay the foundations for the Cupertino, Calif.-based consumer tech giant.

“This is pretty much on the top of the list for technological artifacts,” Cassandra Hatton, Bonhams senior specialist in fine books, manuscripts, and the history of science, told FoxNews.com. “It’s one of the first 50 Apple Computers that were made.”

Bonhams estimates that the Apple-1 motherboard, which comes with a vintage keyboard, monitor, and power supply, will be sold for between $300,000 and $500,000. The seller is John Anderson, founder of the AppleSiders Apple user group in Cinncinati.

“It could very easily go to an institution or very easily go to a private collection,” said Hatton, noting that that the last operational Apple-1 computer sold for $672,000.

Built in 1976 by Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, the computer is still operational.  

According to the Apple-1 Registry run by computer expert Mike Willegas, there are only 63 surviving authentic Apple-1’s. Only 15 of the 63 are said to have been successfully operated since 2000.

“The condition on this is really just fantastic,” said Hatton. “Hobbyists would really tinker with these things – so often, you see them burnt and scratched, but this is a really clean [mother] board.”

A rare 1857 letter from Charles Darwin will also be auctioned this week. In the four-page letter to zoologist and dentist Charles Spence Bate, Darwin inquires about Barnacle reproduction.

“This is really a classic Charles Darwin piece,” noted Hatton. “Darwin letters of this length are not commonly found.”

Signed “C.Darwin,” the letter forms part of the naturalist’s extensive research into barnacles, which helped hone his theory of evolution.

The letter is expected to raise between $20,000 and $30,000 at auction.

Another item of great historical importance in the sale is a large viewing window from the Manhattan Project. Originally used to view the production of plutonium at a Manhattan Project’s site in Hanford, Washington State, the 1500-pound window is six-inches thick.

Hatton told FoxNews.com that the window, which is not radioactive, is 70% lead oxide.

“Because the lead oxide is such a high percentage, it reacts more like a metal than glass,” she explained. “If you took a grinder to the window, in the same way that a metal would crumble – it wouldn’t shatter.”

Bonhams predicts that the window will sell for between $150,000 and $250,000.

Other items on sale this week include the Helmholtz sound synthesizer, described as the world’s first electric keyboard, and the extensive archive of pioneering astronomer George Willis Richey.

The auction house is also selling dozens of globes, some of which are miniature and date back to the eighteenth century. More modern items on sale include an Apple flag from the company’s European headquarters in France and a portrait of Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates. Painted in 2000 for the cover of Wired magazine, the portrait has an estimated value of $700 to $900.

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Article source: http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2014/10/20/auction-offers-fascinating-glimpse-into-history-science-and-technology/

PARC Alto source code released by computer history museum

Choosing a cloud hosting partner with confidence

The Computer History Museum in Mountain View has released another foundational piece of software to the world at large: some of the code that gave the world the Xerox Alto computer, which among other things helped inspire a couple of young garage developers, Steves Jobs and Wozniak.

To the modern eye, the Alto looks odd – mostly because of the portrait orientation of its screen – but it represents Silicon Valley legend and was the first shot at making the UI visual rather than text. Want to draw things using a mouse? Check. Want a desktop metaphor for the screen? Ditto. WYSIWYG word processor? Ditto-ditto.


As Xerox PARC alumnus Paul McJones (he worked there on the Star office automation project) describes here, getting the software ready to be shown to the public (with the permission of the Palo Alto Research Centre) was no mean feat.

First the original Alto IFS files had to be archived to nine-track tape (software for this was written by Tim Diebert); the tapes were then transferred to eight-millimetre cartridges (James Foote wrote that software); Al Kossow put that lot on CD, and Dan Swinehart got permission to release the files.

A machine that changed the world: Alto

The file dump includes “snapshots of Alto source code, executables, documentation, font files, and other files from 1975 to 1987”, McJones writes. It includes the Bravo word processor, Markup, Draw and Sil drawing programs, and the Laurel e-mail program. There’s also the BCPL, Mesa, Smalltalk, and Lisp programming environments along with various utilities and the Alto’s Ethernet implementation.

While the Alto was bigger than a single-person project, McJones highlights as its creators: “Bob Taylor inspired PARC to invent the Alto, Chuck Thacker designed its hardware, Butler Lampson architected its software, Alan Kay envisioned its use as a personal dynamic medium, and many people at PARC and throughout the Xerox Corporation contributed to fulfil the vision.”

The file system archive is here.

If you’re more interested in the non-GUI thread of early personal computer history, the Computer History Museum also dumped some early CP/M source code at the beginning of October, here. ®

Beginner’s guide to SSL certificates

Article source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/10/22/chm_releases_parc_alto_source_code/